Computer Mouse

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Many mice that use a USB receiver have a storage compartment for it inside the mouse. Some “nano receivers” are designed to be small enough to remain plugged into a laptop during transport, while still being large enough to easily remove. The earliest mass-market mice, such as on the original Macintosh, Amiga, and Atari ST mice used a D-subminiature 9-pin connector to send the quadrature-encoded X and Y axis signals directly, plus one pin per mouse button. The mouse was a simple optomechanical device, and the decoding circuitry was all in the main computer.

It requires the user to be able to feel depth or hardness; this ability was realized with the first electrorheological tactile mice but never marketed. When mice have more than one button, the software may assign different functions to each button. Often, the primary (leftmost in a right-handed configuration) button on the mouse will select items, and the secondary (rightmost in a right-handed) button will bring up a menu of alternative actions applicable to that item. Users can also employ mice gesturally, meaning that a stylized motion of the mouse cursor itself, called a “gesture”, can issue a command or map to a specific action. For example, in a drawing program, moving the mouse in a rapid “x” motion over a shape might delete the shape.

Those with a trackball may be designed to stay stationary, using the trackball instead of moving the mouse. Also known as bats, flying mice, or wands, these devices generally function through ultrasound and provide at least three degrees of freedom. Probably the best known example would be 3Dconnexion (“Logitech’s SpaceMouse”) from the early 1990s.

Telefunken’s mouse was sold as optional equipment for their computer systems. Bill English, builder of Engelbart’s original mouse, created a ball mouse in 1972 while working for Xerox PARC. The plural for a computer mouse is either “mice” or “mouses” according to most dictionaries, with “mice” being more common.

The “Color Mouse”, originally marketed by RadioShack for their Color Computer (but also usable on MS-DOS machines equipped with analog joystick ports, provided the software accepted joystick input) was the best-known example. The relative movements of the mouse on the surface are applied to the position of the pointer on the screen, which signals the point where actions of the user take place, so hand movements are replicated by the pointer. Clicking or pointing can select files, programs or actions from a list of names, or through small images called “icons” and other elements. For example, a text file might be represented by a picture of a paper notebook and clicking while the cursor points at this icon might cause a text editing program to open the file in a window. A mouse typically controls the motion of a pointer in two dimensions in a graphical user interface . The mouse turns movements of the hand backward and forward, left and right into equivalent electronic signals that in turn are used to move the pointer.

In 1982, Logitech introduced the P4 Mouse at the Comdex trade show in Las Vegas, its first hardware mouse. That same year Microsoft made the decision to make the MS-DOS program Microsoft Word mouse-compatible, and developed the first PC-compatible mouse. Microsoft’s mouse shipped in 1983, thus beginning the Microsoft Hardware division of the company. However, the mouse remained relatively obscure until the appearance of the Macintosh 128K (which https://www.wikipedia.org/ included an updated version of the single-button Lisa Mouse) in 1984, and of the Amiga 1000 and the Atari ST in 1985. Many games provide players with the option of mapping their own choice of a key or button to a certain control. An early technique of players, circle strafing, saw a player continuously strafing while aiming and shooting at an opponent by walking in circle around the opponent with the opponent at the center of the circle.

Laser diodes provide good resolution and precision, improving performance on opaque specular surfaces. Later, more surface-independent optical mice use an optoelectronic sensor (essentially, a tiny low-resolution video https://www.ullanonim.org/ camera) to take successive images of the surface on which the mouse operates. Battery powered, wireless optical mice flash the LED intermittently to save power, and only glow steadily when movement is detected.

One roller detects the forward-backward motion of the mouse and the other the left-right motion. Opposite the two rollers is a third one that is spring-loaded to push the ball against the other two rollers. Each roller is on the same shaft as an encoder wheel that has slotted edges; the slots interrupt infrared light beams to generate electrical pulses that represent wheel movement. Each wheel’s disc has a pair of light beams, located so that a given beam becomes interrupted or again starts to pass light freely when the other beam of the pair is about halfway between changes. By 1982, the Xerox 8010 was probably the best-known computer with a mouse. Hawley, who manufactured mice for Xerox, stated that “Practically, I have the market all to myself right now”; a Hawley mouse cost $415.