Computer Mouse


Telefunken’s mouse was sold as optional equipment for their computer systems. Bill English, builder of Engelbart’s original mouse, created a ball mouse in 1972 while working for Xerox PARC. The plural for a computer mouse is either “mice” or “mouses” according to most dictionaries, with “mice” being more common.

A patent for an inertial mouse claims that such mice consume less power than optically based mice, and offer increased sensitivity, reduced weight and increased ease-of-use. In combination with a wireless keyboard an inertial mouse can offer alternative ergonomic arrangements which do not require a flat work surface, potentially alleviating some types of repetitive motion injuries related to workstation posture. Players can use a scroll wheel for changing weapons (or for controlling scope-zoom magnification, in older games). On most first person shooter games, programming may also assign more functions to additional buttons on mice with more than three controls.

Some mice also come with small “pads” attached to the bottom surface, also called mouse feet or mouse skates, that help the user slide the mouse smoothly across surfaces. To transmit their input, typical cabled mice use a thin electrical cord terminating in a standard connector, such as RS-232C, PS/2, ADB, or USB. Cordless mice instead transmit data via infrared radiation or radio , although many such cordless interfaces are themselves connected through the aforementioned wired serial buses. While primarily a motion-sensing device , Wii Remote can also detect its spatial position by comparing the distance and position of the lights from the IR emitter using its integrated IR camera . The obvious drawback to this approach is that it can only produce spatial coordinates while its camera can see the sensor bar. More accurate consumer devices have since been released, including the PlayStation Move, the Razer Hydra, and the controllers part of the HTC Vive virtual reality system.

Players could achieve this by holding down a key for strafing while continuously aiming the mouse toward the opponent. FPSs naturally lend themselves to separate and simultaneous control of the player’s movement and aim, and on computers this has traditionally been achieved with a combination of keyboard and mouse. Players use the X-axis of the mouse for looking left and right, and the Y-axis for looking up and down; the keyboard is used for movement and supplemental inputs. Mouse buttons are microswitches which can be pressed to select or interact with an element of a graphical user interface, producing a distinctive clicking sound.

Weighting 465 g, the device with a total height of about 7 cm came in a c. 12 cm diameter hemispherical injection-molded thermoplastic casing featuring one central push button. Since around the late 1990s, the three-button scrollmouse has become the de facto standard. Users most commonly employ the second button to invoke a contextual menu in the computer’s software user interface, which contains options specifically tailored to the interface element over which the mouse cursor currently sits.

That November, while attending a conference on computer graphics in Reno, Nevada, Engelbart began to ponder how to adapt the underlying principles of the planimeter to inputting X- and Y-coordinate data. On 14 November 1963, he first recorded his thoughts in his personal notebook about something he initially called a “bug”, which in a “3-point” form could have a “drop point and 2 orthogonal wheels”. He wrote that the “bug” would be “easier” and “more natural” to use, and unlike a stylus, it would stay still when let go, which meant it would be “much better for coordination with the keyboard”. Engelbart’s original mouse did not require a mousepad; the mouse had two large wheels which could roll on virtually any surface.

The Xerox Alto was one of the first computers designed for individual use in 1973 and is regarded as the first modern computer to use a mouse. As noted above, this “mouse” was first mentioned in print in a July 1965 report, on which English was the lead author. On 9 December 1968, Engelbart publicly demonstrated the mouse at what would come to be known as The Mother of All Demos. Engelbart never received any royalties for it, as his employer SRI held the patent, which expired before the mouse became widely used in personal computers. In any event, the invention of the mouse was just a small part of Engelbart’s much larger project of augmenting human intellect.

In 1982, Logitech introduced the P4 Mouse at the Comdex trade show in Las Vegas, its first hardware mouse. That same year Microsoft made the decision to make the MS-DOS program Microsoft Word mouse-compatible, and developed the first PC-compatible mouse. Microsoft’s mouse shipped in 1983, thus beginning the Microsoft Hardware division of the company. However, the mouse remained relatively obscure until the appearance of the Macintosh 128K (which included an updated version of the single-button Lisa Mouse) in 1984, and of the Amiga 1000 and the Atari ST in 1985. Many games provide players with the option of mapping their own choice of a key or button to a certain control. An early technique of players, circle strafing, saw a player continuously strafing while aiming and shooting at an opponent by walking in circle around the opponent with the opponent at the center of the circle.